## Microsoft Interview Question

Software Engineer in Tests**Country:**United States

**Interview Type:**Phone Interview

The question does not clearly mention whether all the negatives are the same or whether all the positives are the same. If they are diff say we have -2, -5, -1,etc. and 4,8,7,etc then we cannot use the DNF algo as it is.

Why not? If you run the code above with {-4, -5, 0, 3, 7, 0, -2, -5, 7, 0} it should still rearrange them properly. The order might not be preserved though.

In single parse:

```
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
int main()
{
int *arr, n, i, j, k;
scanf("%d", &n);
arr = (int *)malloc(sizeof(int)*n);
for(i = 0; i < n; i++)
scanf("%d", &arr[i]);
i = -1;
k = n;
for(j = 0; j < k; j++)
{
if(arr[j] > 0)
{
int temp;
k--;
temp = arr[j];
arr[j] = arr[k];
arr[k] = temp;
j--;
}
else if(arr[j] < 0)
{
int temp;
i++;
temp = arr[j];
arr[j] = arr[i];
arr[i] = temp;
}
}
printf("\n");
for(i = 0; i < n; i++)
printf(" %d ", arr[i]);
return 0;
}
```

Dude ignore that, May be some one didn't got that approach. But anyways I see that you're doing this in order O(n^2). This can be done in O(n) order, may be that's why some one didn't like it.

It seems due to indentation people are getting confused.. As I take the array from user.. I am using 2 for loops but they are not nested. :)

I only parse the array once... indicated by second for loop.

swapping to keep the elements below zero in first half.. and elements greater than zero in third half.. the elements equal to zero comes in between. :)

Ohh....but it is making this code looks complex.But then again you are returning the same array. Its gud.

Why no vote for my code.. I think its the best solution possible.. Please let me know if ne issue?

Hi,

Would you please let me know if the below sequence of input works for your logic???

1,2,5,7,-1,-2,-5,0,0,0

If not, I have still more sequences to share with you.

If possible, explain the logic behind your code.

Thanks.

This will work for the given input, I think you are getting confused by the fact that he is using j-- in the loop, that is only to counter the j++ in the for loop.

Whenever you come across 0 you are just skipping that instead of putting it in some place. It is not working in making sure 0s are in the middle - which is what supposed to make this challenging. I can do it in two passes though, first bring only negative to one side and then take only remainign array and bring 0s to one side.

As explained earlier.. making the -ve shift to front nd positive shift to back is same as keeping zeros in middle. Please read comments. :)

what if you swap with positive number?

1st element is positive, last element is positive.

{1,-1,0,2}

Read his code correctly what he is doing is allright..He is just swapping all the positive number towards the end all negative number towrads the begining..In that sense he is swapping even positive with positive, that can be avoided.

I try to make it more logical..Consider the case when there are only positive and negative numbers and no zero..In that case we use two pointer from two ends and swap positive with negative..Here what we have to do is, swap positive with negative as well as zero..Swap negative with positive but swap with zero too..

@Sanjeev.. Please explain.. why.. :P

Know about the code before commenting... Its mod Dutch Flag Algo... Thanks. @Neo.

/*

* This has a runtime of O(n).

* Places all the negative no on the left side.

* All the positive no on the right side.

* And all the zeroes in the middle.

*/

public int[] arrangeArray(int[] arr) {

int[] res = new int[arr.length];

int left = 0;

int right = arr.length - 1;

for (int i = 0; i < arr.length; i++) {

if (arr[i] < 0) {

res[left] = arr[i];

left++;

} else if (arr[i] > 0) {

res[right] = arr[i];

right--;

}

}

return res;

}

You don't have to do 2 passes. In first pass place the negatives on the left, the positive on the right, and the remaining must be zeroes. As when you initialize an array the value gets initialised with zero so you don't even need to set anything now. Just 1 pass required.

Although it's using an extra array, it's easier to understand than the Dutch National Flag algorithm so I like this version more.

public static void divide_neg_0_pos(int [] test){

int neg_hold=-1;

int pos_hold=test.length;

int current=0;

while(current!=pos_hold){

if(test[current]>0){

exChange(test,current,--pos_hold);

continue;

}

if(test[current]<0){

if(current==neg_hold){

current++;

continue;

}

exChange(test,current,++neg_hold);

}

if(test[current]==0){

current++;

}

}

}

Solution 1:

```
void swap(int* a, int i, int j)
{
if (i >= j)
return;
int temp = a[i];
a[i] = a[j];
a[j] = temp;
}
void print(int * a, int len)
{
for (int i = 0; i < len; ++i)
printf("%3d ", a[i]);
}
int main()
{
int arr[] = {-12, -11, 12, 0, 11, -10, 10, 9, 8, -8, 7, 0, 0 , -9, -7};
int start = 0;
int mid = 0;
int len = sizeof(arr) / sizeof(arr[0]);
int end = len - 1;
print(arr, len);
printf("\n");
while (mid <= end)
{
if (arr[mid] < 0)
swap(arr, start++, mid++);
else if (arr[mid] == 0)
mid++;
else
swap(arr, mid, end--);
}
print(arr, len);
printf("\n");
return 0;
}
```

Solution 2:

```
void swap(int* a, int i, int j)
{
if (i >= j)
return;
int temp = a[i];
a[i] = a[j];
a[j] = temp;
}
void print(int * a, int len)
{
for (int i = 0; i < len; ++i)
printf("%3d ", a[i]);
}
int main()
{
int arr[] = {-12, -11, 12, 0, 11, -10, 10, 9, 8, -8, 7, 0, 0 , -9, -7};
int start = 0;
int len = sizeof(arr) / sizeof(arr[0]);
int end = len - 1;
print(arr, len);
printf("\n");
while (start < end)
{
while (arr[start] < 0)
++start;
while (arr[end] >= 0)
--end;
swap(arr, start, end);
}
print(arr, len);
printf("\n");
while (arr[start] >= 0)
--start;
++start;
end = len - 1;
while (start < end)
{
while (!arr[start])
++start;
while (arr[end] > 0)
--end;
swap(arr, start, end);
}
print(arr, len);
return 0;
}
```

Here is my one pass algorithm:

let ptr_left points to the left end of the array a[] and ptr_right points to the right end

let nzero_left is the counts of zero from left sides; nzero_right for right side

nzero_left=0; nzero_right=0;

while (ptr_left<=ptr_right)

{{

if (a[ptr_left]==positive and

a[ptr_right]==negative)

swap a[ptr_left] and a[ptr_right]

if a[ptr_left] is negative

{

if nzero_left>0:

shift 0 toward the center of array by letting

a[ptr_left-nzero_left]= a[ptr_left]; a[ptr_left]=0;

ptr_left++;

}

else if a[ptr_left] is zero

{

increase nzero_left by 1

ptr_left++;

}

similarly,

if a[ptr_right] is positive

{

if nzero_right>0:

shift 0 toward the center of array by letting

a[ptr_right-nzero_right]= a[ptr_right]; a[ptr_right]=0;

ptr_right--;

}

else if a[ptr_right] is zero

{

increase nzero_right by 1

ptr_right--;

}

}}

eventually, ptr_left and ptr_right meet somewhere in middle,

here is the python code

```
a=[1,2,-1,0,2,0,0,3,-1,4,-2,0,3,4,0,0,2,-2,-3,0]
ptr_left=0
ptr_right=len(a)-1;
nzero_left=0
nzero_right=0
while ptr_left<=ptr_right:
if a[ptr_left]>0 and a[ptr_right]<0:
t=a[ptr_left]
a[ptr_left]=a[ptr_right]
a[ptr_right]=t
if a[ptr_left]<0:
if nzero_left>0:
a[ptr_left-nzero_left]=a[ptr_left]
a[ptr_left]=0
ptr_left+=1
elif a[ptr_left]==0:
nzero_left+=1
ptr_left+=1
if a[ptr_right]>0:
if nzero_right>0:
a[ptr_right+nzero_right]=a[ptr_right]
a[ptr_right]=0
ptr_right-=1
elif a[ptr_right]==0:
nzero_right+=1
ptr_right-=1
print ptr_left, ptr_right, nzero_left, nzero_right
print a
```

here is the output

0 18 0 1

[1, 2, -1, 0, 2, 0, 0, 3, -1, 4, -2, 0, 3, 4, 0, 0, 2, -2, -3, 0]

1 17 0 1

[-3, 2, -1, 0, 2, 0, 0, 3, -1, 4, -2, 0, 3, 4, 0, 0, 2, -2, 0, 1]

2 16 0 1

[-3, -2, -1, 0, 2, 0, 0, 3, -1, 4, -2, 0, 3, 4, 0, 0, 2, 0, 2, 1]

3 15 0 1

[-3, -2, -1, 0, 2, 0, 0, 3, -1, 4, -2, 0, 3, 4, 0, 0, 0, 2, 2, 1]

4 14 1 2

[-3, -2, -1, 0, 2, 0, 0, 3, -1, 4, -2, 0, 3, 4, 0, 0, 0, 2, 2, 1]

4 13 1 3

[-3, -2, -1, 0, 2, 0, 0, 3, -1, 4, -2, 0, 3, 4, 0, 0, 0, 2, 2, 1]

4 12 1 3

[-3, -2, -1, 0, 2, 0, 0, 3, -1, 4, -2, 0, 3, 0, 0, 0, 4, 2, 2, 1]

4 11 1 3

[-3, -2, -1, 0, 2, 0, 0, 3, -1, 4, -2, 0, 0, 0, 0, 3, 4, 2, 2, 1]

4 10 1 4

[-3, -2, -1, 0, 2, 0, 0, 3, -1, 4, -2, 0, 0, 0, 0, 3, 4, 2, 2, 1]

5 9 1 4

[-3, -2, -1, -2, 0, 0, 0, 3, -1, 4, 0, 0, 0, 0, 2, 3, 4, 2, 2, 1]

6 8 2 4

[-3, -2, -1, -2, 0, 0, 0, 3, -1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 4, 2, 3, 4, 2, 2, 1]

7 8 3 4

[-3, -2, -1, -2, 0, 0, 0, 3, -1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 4, 2, 3, 4, 2, 2, 1]

8 7 3 4

[-3, -2, -1, -2, -1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 3, 4, 2, 3, 4, 2, 2, 1]

If we could use another array for result, shivam maharshi's code above seems to be doing good. In case we are not allowed to use extra array, following code works fine :

public class testing {

public static void main(String[] args) {

int a[]={-5,6,-9,0,-2,0,4,-3};

sortArray(a);

}

static void sortArray(int[] a)

{

int negativeTracker=0, positiveTracker=a.length-1;

while(negativeTracker<=positiveTracker) {

if(a[negativeTracker] < 0)

negativeTracker++;

else {

if(a[positiveTracker] >= 0)

positiveTracker--;

else {

swap(a, negativeTracker, positiveTracker);

negativeTracker++;

positiveTracker--;

}

}

}

int zeroTracker = 0;

if(positiveTracker < a.length-2) {

zeroTracker = positiveTracker+1;

positiveTracker = a.length-1;

while(zeroTracker<positiveTracker) {

if(a[zeroTracker] == 0)

zeroTracker++;

else {

if(a[positiveTracker] > 0)

positiveTracker--;

else {

swap(a, zeroTracker, positiveTracker);

zeroTracker++;

positiveTracker--;

}

}

}

}

printArray(a);

}

static void swap(int a[], int from, int to)

{

int temp=a[from];

a[from]=a[to];

a[to]=temp;

}

static void printArray(int[] y) {

for(int a:y) {

System.out.print(a + " : ");

}

System.out.println();

}

}

```
public void DutchFlag(int[] numbers)
{
int low = 0;
int current = 0;
int high = numbers.Length - 1;
while (current <= high)
{
if (numbers[current] > 0)
{
swap(numbers, current, high);
high--;
}
else if (numbers[current] < 0)
{
swap(numbers, current, low);
low++;
current++;
}
else
{
current++;
}
}
}
public void swap(int[] array, int first, int second)
{
int temp;
temp = array[first];
array[first] = array[second];
array[second] = temp;
}
```

I gave the following answer (didn't get through, help me figure out if I did something wrong)

```
void group(int[] arr) {
int begin = 0, end = arr.length;
while(begin<end) {
/* group all positive together at the end*/
if(arr[begin]>0) {
int temp = arr[begin];
arr[begin] = arr[end];
arr[end] = temp;
end--;
} else {
begin++;
}
}
/* At the end of previous loop, end will contain the first index of negative number */
end--; //This will contain the end-index of sub-array where +ve and zeros are mixed
begin = 0;
while(begin<end) {
/* group all zero together at the end*/
if(arr[begin]==0) {
int temp = arr[begin];
arr[begin] = arr[end];
arr[end] = temp;
end--;
} else {
begin++;
}
}
}
```

Sorting is nlog(n), but there's a linear solution. Not sure if this is optimal, but here's a two pass algorithm that first swaps positive/zero numbers from left to right with negative numbers, and then a similar pass for zeros:

```
void partition(vector<int>& input) {
int next_to_swap = 0;
int ix = 1;
int last_negative = -1;
while (ix < input.size() && next_to_swap < input.size()) {
if (input[next_to_swap] < 0) { next_to_swap++; continue; }
if (input[ix] < 0) {
std::swap(input[ix], input[next_to_swap]);
last_negative = next_to_swap;
}
ix++;
}
next_to_swap = last_negative+1;
ix = next_to_swap+1;
while (ix < input.size() && next_to_swap < input.size()) {
if (input[next_to_swap] == 0) { next_to_swap++; continue; }
if (input[ix] == 0) std::swap(input[ix], input[next_to_swap]);
ix++;
}
}
```

I followed the exact 2-pass approach, I dunno what happened and why wasn't I called for the next round.

Here is the a possible solution for this:

```
void Lineararrange(int X[]){
this.X=X;
int i=0,j=0;
int m=X.length-1,n;
while(i<X.length){
//Increase i as long as found negative
while(X[i]<0 && i<X.length)i++;
//Set j=i+1
j=i+1;//X[j] is either 0 or positive
//increase j as long as another negative is not found
while(j<X.length && X[j]>=0){j++;}
//if j=length finish
if(j>=X.length){
break;
}
//else swap with X[i],increase i
else{
int temp=X[i];
X[i]=X[j];
X[j]=temp;
}
}
//Now we have all negative to the left of i
while(m>0){
//Decrease m as long as found positive
while(X[m]>0 && m>0)m--;
//Set n=m-1
n=m-1;//X[n] is either 0 or negative
//decrease n as long as another positive is not found
while(n>=0 && X[n]<=0 ){n--;}
if(n<=0){
break;
}
//if n=0 finish
//else swap with X[m],decrease m
else{
int temp=X[m];
X[m]=X[n];
X[n]=temp;
}
}
//Now we have all positive to the right of m
output();
}
public void output(){
for(int i=0;i<X.length;i++){
System.out.print(X[i]+",");
}
}
```

#include<stdio.h>

#define SIZE 9

void arrange(int[]);

void swap(int[],int,int);

int main()

{

int array1[SIZE]={-3,1,2,3,0,0,-2,-3,0};

arrange(array1);

int i=0;

for(;i<SIZE;i++)

{

printf("%d\t",array1[i]);

}

getchar();

return 0;

}

void arrange(int array1[])

{

int i = 0;

int first = 0,last = SIZE-1;

while(array1[i] <0)

{

i++;

}

while(i<=last)

{

if(array1[i]==0)

{

i++;

}

else

{

if(array1[i]>0)

{

swap(array1,i,last);

last--;

}

else

{

swap(array1,i,first);

first++;

}

}

}

}

void swap(int array1[ ],int first,int second)

{

int temp = array1[first];

array1[first]=array1[second];

array1[second]=temp;

}

int _tmain(int argc, _TCHAR* argv[])

{

int arr[9] = { 0,0,-1,-1,2,2,0,-2,2};

int startIndex =0;

int EndIndex = 8;

int tmp;

int i =0;

while ( startIndex < EndIndex )

{

if (arr[startIndex] < 0)

{

tmp = arr[i];

arr[i++] = arr[startIndex];

arr[startIndex] = tmp;

}

if (arr[startIndex] > 0 )

{

tmp = arr[startIndex];

arr[startIndex] = arr[EndIndex];

arr[EndIndex--] = tmp;

}

if (arr[startIndex] == 0)

{

startIndex++;

}

}

return 0;

}

What about first having 3 variables that will count the no of positive, negative & 0 values once u had that in the second pass u just have to set values in the second pass

well, since it doesn't say we cannot have an extra array. I will just create an extra array with the same size and initialize to 0.

Then I will scan through the given array, if it's less than 0, then put it at the front (say, a counter that starts at 0). If it's greater than 0, then put it at the end (have a counter that starts at n-1).

It should be done after the first pass since it's initialized to 0's already, so the middle ones are all 0's.

```
public class NegPosArray {
public static int[] partitionArray(int[] array) {
int[] result = new int[array.length];
int leftCount = 0;
int rightCount = array.length - 1;
for (int i = 0; i < array.length; i++) {
if (array[i] < 0) {
result[leftCount] = array[i];
leftCount++;
} else if (array[i] > 0) {
result[rightCount] = array[i];
rightCount--;
}
}
return result;
}
public static void main(String args[]) {
int[] arr = { 1, 2, -4, 0, 0, 2, 3, 7, -6, -13, 5, 8, 0, 2, -5, 3, -2,
5, -16, 0, -23, -25, -6, 1, 0, 0 };
int[] res = partitionArray(arr);
for (int i = 0; i < res.length; i++) {
System.out.print(res[i] + " ");
}
}
}
```

The result is

```
-4 -6 -13 -5 -2 -16 -23 -25 -6 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 5 3 2 8 5
7 3 2 2 1
```

```
void arrange(int *a,int n)
{
int negative_right_end=0;
int positive_left_end=n-1;
for(int i=0; (i<n || i>positive_left_end);)
{
if(a[i]==0)
i++;
else if(a[i]==-1)
{
swap(a[i],a[negative_right_end]);
negative_right_end++;
}
else if(a[i]==1)
{
swap(a[i],a[positive_left_end]);
positive_left_end--;
}
}
}
```

It is similar to Dutch Nation Flag problem:

Just imagine negatives numbers as 0, zeroes as 1 and positive numbers as 2. Then the problem is to sort the array containing only 0, 1, 2.

Dutch nation flag problem code:

```
Lo := 1; Mid := 1; Hi := N;
while Mid <= Hi do
Invariant: a[1..Lo-1]=0 and a[Lo..Mid-1]=1 and a[Hi+1..N]=2; a[Mid..Hi] are unknown.
case a[Mid] in
0: swap a[Lo] and a[Mid]; Lo++; Mid++
1: Mid++
2: swap a[Mid] and a[Hi]; Hi--
```

So for the above problem:

switch cases will be if arr[mid] <0 arr[mid] ==0 and arr[mid]>0

This problem can be solved by modified Dutch National Flag problem.

Instead of '0' we have -ve numbers

Instead of '1' we have 0's(zero).

and for 2 we have +ve Numbers.

------------------------------------------

So modified algo will be

- Aalok August 23, 2012